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Basics of manufacturing printed circuit boards

Basics of manufacturing printed circuit boards

In electronics, printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support has its connecting wires soldered to the copper pad surface mount applications or through the circuit board and copper pads on the electronic component lead in the drilling assembly through hole applications. All through-hole components circuit board design may have at the top or side of the assembly, through-hole and surface mount mixing only on the top side, mixing, and surface-mount components through hole and surface mount components on the top side or the bottom side or surface mounted circuit on the top side of the circuit board and the bottom side of the assembly.
Board also for electrically connecting each component utilizing a conductive copper traces desired lead. Component pads and connection traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. Printed circuit board is designed to be one-sided copper pads and traces on the board side of it, on both sides of the bottom of the double-sided copper pads and traces on top and the plate, or a multi-layer design with copper pads and traces on top and bottom with traces and connections inside a variable number of copper plate layer.
The dielectric material of the core single-sided or double-sided circuit boards, such as FR-4 epoxy glass fiber, plated with copper on one side or both sides. The copper plating is etched away to form the actual copper pads on the surface of the plate and the board traces as part of the manufacturing process connection. A multilayer circuit board comprising a plurality of adhesive has been impregnated with a dielectric material layer, and these layers for layered copper plating. All these layers are aligned and then bonded into a single board structure in the heat and pressure. With 48 or more layers of a multilayer circuit board can be produced with current technology.
In a typical four-layer board design, inner layer is often used to provide power and ground connections, e.g., a + 5V and ground plane layer plane as the two inner layers, and all other circuit elements connected to the board with the top and bottom layer made . Very complex circuit board design may have a lot of layers, so that different voltage levels, a variety of ground connection or connected to the ball grid array devices and other large integrated circuit package format many clues.
There is usually made of a material used to construct two types of multilayer circuit boards. Prepregs are preimpregnated glass fiber thin layer of adhesive and a sheet form, typically from about 0.002 inches thick. Core material is similar in that it has a dielectric material, such as glass fiber reinforced epoxy very thin double-sided circuit board having deposited on each side of the copper layer, typically a dielectric material with a thickness of 0.030 on each side 1 ounce copper layer. In the multi-layer circuit board design, there are two methods to establish the required number of layers used. Core methods stack up, it is an older technology, the center core layer and another layer below the core layer and above the prepreg material. 1 binding prepreg layer and two core layers would make a 4-layer board.
Film stacks up method, relatively new technology, the center will have a core layer, and then build prepreg material above and below the copper layer to form the final number of layers from the circuit board design, a bit like Dagwood build a sandwich. This method allows the thickness of the circuit board how to combine, by changing the number of sheets in each layer of the prepreg, the thickness of the finished product in order to meet the requirements of production flexibility. Once the material layer is completed, and the entire stack is heated so that the adhesive pre-impregnated prepreg and the core layer are bonded together into a single entity pressure.
The process of manufacturing the printed circuit board, follow these steps for most applications:
Basic steps for the manufacture of printed circuit boards:
Providing the purchase order information board Gerber files to determine the design process materials, processes and requirements to meet customer requirements on the basis of – 1. Set.
2. Imaging – Gerber file transfer data to the etching of a resist layer is placed on the conductive thin film layer of a copper process.
3. Etching – Copper and other exposed areas unprotected resist film, a chemical that eliminates the unprotected copper, leaving the protected copper pads and traces instead of the traditional crafts; new process using plasma / laser etching instead of chemicals to remove the copper material, so more advanced definition.
4. Press the multilayer – aligned conductive copper and insulating dielectric layer under heat and pressure to activate them in the dielectric layer of the adhesive process, to form a solid sheet material.
5. Drilling – Drill holes are plated through the application process; the second is used for the drilling process is not carried out by plated-through holes. Information on the location and size of the holes in the drill contains graphic files.
6. plating – copper plating process is applied to the pad, trace, and through the plated through hole is to be drilled; copper plate was placed in charged bath.
7. The second borehole – this is when the hole is drilled through a copper area required, but not the hole by plating. Avoid this process, if possible, because it increases the cost of the finished board.
8. Masking – applying a protective masking material, solder mask, or cover the bare copper wire has a thin layer of copper solder application process; the solder mask to protect against environmental damage, provides insulation to prevent solder short circuit, and protect pad traces between runs.
9. Finishing – after coating with a thin layer of solder pad area to prepare for the final wave plate or backflow assembly have been placed, will take place at a later date welding technology process.
10. The printing – Application Markup component name and component overview of the process of the Board of Directors. If the components are mounted on the top and bottom side may only be applied to the top side or both sides.
11. Route – Process multiple boards is separated from the panel of the same; if necessary, this process also allows cutting notches or slots on the board.
12. Quality control – circuit board for visual inspection; You can also check the quality of the wall cross-sections or other methods in multilayer hole plating process.
13. Electrical Testing – check continuity or voltage through various points on the board between the applied and determine the process short circuit board on current mobile devices connected to the event. Depending on board complexity, this process may take a specially designed test fixtures and test programs to test electronic systems used by the board manufacturer integration.

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